1. Having delivered the message, he left immediately.
2. Having finished his work, Harry was ready for play.
3. The child, having found its mother, was again happy.
In the sentences above, the expressions having delivered, having finished, and having found partake of the nature of the verb, as each expresses action, without making an assertion, and each has a noun as its object.
Having delivered, in the first sentence, is descriptive of he, and therefore has the force of an adjective.
Each of the expressions having finished and having found, in the second and third sentences, has the force of the verb and of the adjective. We see, therefore, that they are participles.
We notice that the time when he left, the time when Henry was ready for play, and the time when the child was again happy follow immediately upon the delivery of the message, upon the finishing of the work, and upon the finding of the mother.
These participles express an action that is just finished. They are therefore perfect participles.
A perfect participle is a participle that expresses an action or state as just finished.
Point out the different kinds of participles in the follow-ing sentences, and tell what word each modifies:
1. Seeing the multitude, he went up into a mountain.
2. We saw the children playing in the fields.
3. The peers, robed in gold and ermine, were marshaled by the heralds.
4. The people, excited by the eloquence of the orator, could not restrain their emotion.
5. Seated at the open window, the white-haired grandmother, bowed by her fourscore years, was watching for the face she most loved.
6. Hastily lifting his hat, the major entered the carriage, and was driven rapidly away.
7. Having paid his admission fee, David was determined to see the performance through.
8. The ladies in the galleries, unaccustomed to such displays of eloquence, excited by the solemnity of the occasion, and perhaps not unwilling to display their taste and sensibility, were in a state of uncontrollable emotion.
9. Flag of the heroes who left us their glory,
Borne through their battlefield's thunder and flame, Blazoned in song and illumined in story, Wave o'er us all who inherit their fame!
10. Having freed ourselves from our oppressors, let us not oppress others.
11. Flashed all their sabers bare,
Flashed as they turned in air, Sabering the gunners there, Charging an army, while
All the world wondered. Plunged in the battery smoke
Right through the line they broke; Cossack and Russian
Reeled from the saber stroke
Shattered and sundered. Then they rode back, but not,
Not the six hundred.